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1. What is an LED? 
A light emitting diode  (LED) is a semiconductor device that emits visible light when electrical current  passes through it, it is a special kind of diode.


2.What is the lifespan of LEDs?
Many manufacturers claim that their LEDs will last you 50,000 hours or even longer before operating at half brightness. But how valid is this claim?

Quite simply, the LED industry is not yet old enough to validate this figure. LED manufacturers perform numerous accelerated degradation tests, during which they both over heat and overdrive the LEDs until they expire.

From these results, they then extrapolate the figures to find the expected life span under normal conditions. From these tests, many manufacturers concluded the 50,000 hour figure. There are also many LED manufacturers who give an expected lifespan of anywhere from 30,000 to 40,000 hours.

A major factor in the longevity of LEDs is in the way that they are used - in the output. Different colours consume various amounts of energy, thus changing their total lifespan. Furthermore, the expected lifespan also assumes that the LEDs are operating at full brightness, which, depending on the application, may or may not be true.

We can see from the above that there is really no way to exactly confirm the LED lifespan of 50,000 hours. In reality, they may last much longer than this, or perhaps expire earlier. In any case, their lifespan is far longer than any other lighting technology currently available.

We have designed all LED lighting products to be under driven, ensuring that you will get maximum lifespan out of your products.


3. What are the advantages of LEDs compared with  conventional incandescent lights? 
There are several obvious  advantages LEDs have over traditional incandescent light bulbs, they are as  follows:
 Low power consumption - energy saving,
 Long lasting,
 Cold  lighting,
 Small size and weight,
 Fast switch  times,
 Simple to use.


4. Which applications I can use LED lights?

Architectural/ Commercial:
• Interior and exterior special effect lighting (eg. Hotel, restaurant, casino, water feature, landmark)
• Landscape lighting for gardens, parks, pools and spas
Accent lighting
• Cove lighting
• Small spot lighting
• Path lights
• In-ground and underwater lights

Residential Applications:
• Decorative lights
• Pendant lights
• Under or inside cabinets
• Kitchen splash back lighting
• Recessed lighting
• Feature wall lighting
• Bedroom
• Bathroom
• Home theatre/ media room
• Entertainment Area
• Patio/ garden

Retail Display:
• Refrigerated display case lighting
• General merchandise lighting, eg, creating effects and moods based on warm/ cold colours
• Display case lighting

• Concerts feature effect lighting
• Concert hall and theatre lighting
• TV Studios, stage lighting
• Bars, clubs and restaurant

Safety and Security:
• Exit / Entry Signs
• Emergency lighting

Outdoor Areas:
• Parking Lots
• Street and highway lights and signs


5. Could you give more detailed  explanations about these LED advantages? 
Yes. Currently available  LEDs are more energy efficient than incandescent bulbs, but less than florescent  bulbs with the same light output. The power consumption of popular LEDs ranges  from 30mW to 200 mW.People can save money & energy by using LEDs instead  of equivalent incandescent decorative bulbs. The rated average working  life of LED is 100,000 hours compared with 1,000 hours of incandescent bulbs.           

LEDs emit cold lights as working LEDs generate very small amount of heat, so  LEDs are much safer than equivalent incandescent light bulbs in terms of danger  of fire. LEDs don’t have filaments to heat up in order to emit lights just like  the case of incandescent bulbs. Lights are emitted from LEDs as a result of  energy exchange occurring in the different semiconductor materials an LED is  made of.

LEDs are usually shielded with solid transparent plastic materials so they  are more rugged than incandescent and florescent bulbs that are usually sealed  with glass.

LEDs can be powered by either AC voltage or DC voltage. The circuit that is  required to appropriately drive LEDs is much simpler than that for florescent  bulbs.


6. We have seen so many advantages LEDs have over  incandescent light and florescent bulbs, are there any disadvantages LEDs  exhibit compared with incandescent or florescent bulbs? 

Yes, the  most significant disadvantage is the light output limitation of LED. Currently  available LEDs emit limited amount of lights at a relatively small angle range,  while incandescent and florescent light bulbs illuminate in all directions and  give out much more brightness of light. And this is the reason why LEDs  currently can not be used for general lighting applications.           

The second significant disadvantage is the high prices of LEDs. The currently  available LEDs in the market are 3 ~ 10 times more expensive than equivalent  incandescent light bulbs. This is why some customers still hesitate to buy LED  products even though LEDs have so many obvious advantages over incandescent  bulbs and people actually can save money by using LED products in the long  run.


7. What LED products are currently available for  general customers? 
 The most popular LED products available in  volume at the market place are various kinds of LED decoration light products.  And in fact, they are ideal for replacing conventional incandescent decoration  light products, because when compared with incandescent light products, these  LED products save up to 95% energy, have much longer working hours, are more  rugged, and safer in terms of danger of fire and electric shock.           

At present, people can buy beautiful LED light strings, LED rope lights, LED  icicle strings, and individual round LED bulbs with changeable colors, LED rope  lights, LED pipe lights, and more other LED products will be put into market in  the near future.


8. As we notice that in LED light strings, LEDs are in  series connection just like incandescent light strings, how do you compare these  two kinds of light strings in terms of reliability?
LEDs are more  reliable. Most available LED light strings have series configuration like old  incandescent light strings, where lights in the string are connected in series  with each other, so a disconnection of LED light from the string will always  make the entire string fail just like incandescent light strings. However, in  the case of light burning, an incandescent light bulb will always burn open,  namely, the filament of the incandescent bulb breaks, so the whole string will  always fail, while an LED light may either burn open like an incandescent light  bulb or burn short where a short circuit is formed inside the LED, so the burned  LED will stop lighting but all the rest LEDs in the string still light normally.  And LEDs usually burn short, therefore, LEDs are more reliable than incandescent  light bulbs in that respect.


9. Are there any LED strings better than those in  series connection?
Yes, there is. Various  LED string products are more reliable than those LED strings in series  connection in market. OUR strings use a unique patented connection configuration  that ensures an LED string will work normally even one or several LEDs are  disconnected from the string while keeping the low prices and all the features  of LED strings.


10. Why are LEDs of some colors are more expensive than  LEDs of other colors? 
The reason is that different semiconductor  materials are used for different color LEDs, and some semiconductor materials  are more expensive than others; another reason is that manufacturing costs are  different. White LEDs are the most expensive because red, green and blue LEDs  are combined together to make a white LED.


11.Should I use LEDs with diffused, water clear, or  color-transparent lens?
It depends on the  application. Diffused lens contains diffusers which distributes the light output  more evenly and makes wider viewing angle of a LED. Water clear lens, without  diffusers, narrows the viewing angle, creates more focused beam, and increases  intensity of a LED. Color-transparent lens has same effect as water clear lens.  The purpose of tinting is to prevent mixture of different LEDs during mass  production.


12.The intensity on your spec is measured at mcd  (millicandela). How can I convert from mcd to lumens? 
There is no  direct conversion between the two units. Luminous Intensitymeasured in Candela or Millicandela is the light output in a  particular direction. While Luminous Flux measured in Lumens is  the total light output in all direction. Our factory can measure  Luminous Flux (Lumens) with special requests, which takes about 1-2 weeks to  finish.


13.Can LEDs be operated at AC voltage? 
 No,  LEDs can only be operated at DC and require specific anode and cathode connection.


14. Can I Increase LED Brightness by Using Pulsed  Operation? 
Compared to DC operation, it is sometimes possible to  significantly increase visible LED brightness by pulsing. There are 3 reasons  why pulsing can increase brightness:

1) LEDs have more output at lower temperatures. Low duty factor pulsing can,  in some cases, lower the operating temperature of the LED.

2) The human visual system is non-linear. With the right choice of duty  factor and pulse rate, perception will correspond more to the peak brightness  than to the average brightness. This is especially true at low pulse repetition  rates. However, there are a couple of potential problems with using low rep  rates:

a) Visible LEDs may appear to flicker, especially at frequencies below 30  Hz.

b) Flickering sources may be a hazard to epileptics. For more information,  see the following sources:

3) Many LEDs have non-constant luminous efficiency. Luminous efficiency is  the ratio of light output per milliamp of input. At very low and very high  current levels, you get less light per milliamp than you do at intermediate  currents. For an example of this phenomenon, see Figure 4 in the following  Agilent (formerly HP) App Note:

From the above considerations, we can make the following generalizations:

a) If you are trying to operate visible LEDs at maximum possible brightness  levels, you will always get better results using DC operation. This is because  luminous efficiency declines at high currents.

b) If you are trying to achieve a compromise between battery life and LED  output, i.e., you are not operating the LED at maximum power, pulsing is  probably advantageous. If the LED datasheet does not provide an efficiency  curve, you will have to experiment to find the best compromise.


What AATECH can offer you?

We specialize in Commercial lighting solutions; However,we are always happy to assist anyone who shares our passion and vision for LEDs.

For more questions, please email us at:  info@aatechled.com, will reply you ASAP, thank you!


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